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Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know

Many mothers, even though they have milk, do not dare to breastfeed for a number of reasons, in which the mother has a disease that can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk is the most common cause, for example, the mother has hepatitis B or herpes. In this article, Toplist would like to take the time to review some diseases that can be transmitted from mother to child for parents to understand and proactively prevent.

first

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

It is mainly transmitted by the mother-to-child route.

Mother-to-child transmission rate:

  • Depending on the time the mother is infected: If the mother is infected in the first three months of pregnancy, the rate of transmission from mother to child is 1%, in the second trimester, the rate is 10%, and the infection is in the third trimester. late pregnancy is 60-70%.
  • Depending on the mother’s HIV infection status: If the virus is developing and growing rapidly, this rate ranges from over 50% to 90%. If the virus grows and reproduces poorly, this rate is about 30%. If the virus is in a dormant, inactive state, the infection rate is less than 10%.

Regarding the way hepatitis B is transmitted:

The virus is transmitted from mother to baby during labor regardless of vaginal delivery or cesarean section.

So advice for mom:

For the mother (Depending on the mother’s medical condition):

  • If the mother has mild symptoms, there are no symptoms, there is no need for any intervention and can be treated after childbirth
  • If the mother is seriously ill, the disease is progressing with cirrhosis, liver failure, or complications, she should not have children, if she is pregnant, she should be vaccinated against hepatitis B.
  • If the mother needs to be treated while pregnant, she should consult a specialist.

With baby:

  • To reduce the risk of infection to the baby from the mother, the newborn should be vaccinated against hepatitis B within the first 12-24 hours after birth. Then your baby will have more than 95% chance of not getting hepatitis B later in life. Otherwise, your baby is at high risk of contracting hepatitis B.
  • Specifically: For mothers infected with hepatitis B who are HBsAg positive (the body is infected with the virus B) and HBeAg is negative (the virus B is in the dormant phase, not proliferating), right after birth, the baby will received one dose of immunoglobulin and one dose of the usual hepatitis B vaccine. Vaccination is repeated at the second and fourth months postpartum. For both HBsAg-positive and HBeAg-positive mothers, the baby will receive two doses of immunoglobulin and one dose of the usual hepatitis B vaccine. Subsequent vaccines are given at the second and fourth months. This vaccine is given according to the national expanded immunization schedule for all newborns.

Besides, a mother infected with the virus B can breastfeed her baby normally unless the nipple is cracked or bleeding.

Danger of hepatitis B virus

2

HIV AIDS

Survey in Vietnam, infection rate

HIV

In pregnant women is 0.4%, each year about 6000 children out of 1.5 to 2 million births are exposed.

HIV

. Thus, without any preventive measures, the rate of mother-to-child transmission is about 36% (25-40%).

Pathways of disease transmission:

  • Transmission during pregnancy or through the placenta: It accounts for 20-30% of the total cases and increases as the mother progresses to the later stages of the disease.
  • Transmission during labor: 50-60% increase if labor is prolonged, difficult to deliver, mother’s soft tissue is crushed or fetus is scratched, the rate increases as the time from rupture of membranes to when the water breaks. lay over 4 hours.

  • Transmitted when the mother is breastfeeding if the mother has cracked nipples, the baby has mouth ulcers,

Advice:

  • Prenatal intervention: Carry out testing and clinical assessment if the mother is HIV (+) and meets the criteria for treatment with antiretroviral drugs (ARV), then continue treatment until labor, continuously monitor and evaluate. assess disease progression.
  • Interventions during delivery: Avoid interventions such as amniocentesis, episiotomy, consider cesarean section, and rapid lavage.

  • Postpartum intervention: Counseling mothers to use milk to replace breast milk, if not possible, breastfeed in the first months, then wean early to switch to weaning.

Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
Importance of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission

3

Rubella

Rubella

is an infectious disease with a single human host, transmitted from person to person through viral secretions. Therefore, if the mother comes into contact with a carrier (time 1 week before and 2 weeks after the onset of the disease) there is a risk of rubella infection and transmission to the baby.

Rubella virus

a multiplies in the placenta so it can be passed on to the baby during pregnancy. The risk of mother-to-child transmission is 90% at less than 12 weeks gestation, 54% at 13-14 weeks, 35% at 13-16 weeks, 10% at 16 weeks and after 20 weeks the rate This is insignificant. This virus slows the development of the embryo causing serious consequences such as birth defects (heart defects), microcephaly, cerebral palsy, cataracts leading to blindness, … in addition, if the person Mother’s disease in the first 3 months of pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth

Advice:

Mothers need to be vaccinated against rubella at least 3 months before becoming pregnant. In case the mother is sick in the first 3 months of pregnancy, the pregnancy should be terminated because of the risk of the virus attacking the brain, heart, eyes, ears, liver, …

    Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
    Rubella in young children

    4

    Gonorrhea

    Gonorrhea

    can be transmitted from mother to child during labor, gonorrhea gets into the baby’s eyes, causing keratitis, corneal ulcer that, if not treated promptly, can lead to blindness in the baby, a number of other consequences such as cerebral palsy. nutrition, growth retardation, joint and blood infections, meningitis, etc. A mother infected with gonorrhea can pass it on to her baby if the gonorrhea goes back from the vagina to the uterus or when the mother takes care of the baby. transmitted by contact (hugging, kissing, cleaning the baby’s appendages, …)

    Advice:

    Mothers with gonorrhea need to be completely treated before becoming pregnant. If you are sick or diagnosed when you are pregnant, you should choose a cesarean section to avoid gonorrhea from vaginal secretions coming into contact with the baby, and limit contact with the baby after birth.

      Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
      Gonorrhea eye disease

      5

      Group B Streptococcus infection

      Pregnant women who carry the bacteria in the last months of pregnancy can pass it on to their babies.

      There are two types of group B strep infection in infants:

      • Early stage (24-48 hours after birth): babies can have pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis, especially in those
        premature babies.
        Late stage (after 6 days of age): the child may have meningitis, pneumonia

      Advice:

      • The mother needs to have a group B strep test (womb swab and rectal swab) at the end of pregnancy (35-37 weeks) unless the mother has a child with a history of group B strep infection, she does not need to do this. Get tested again because of the high risk.
      • If the result is positive, the mother should be treated with antibiotics during delivery, unless the mother is indicated for a cesarean section before the labor pain comes or the water breaks.

      • However, doing a positive test and treating only prevents infection at an early stage, it is still necessary to monitor the child if the infection is at a late stage.
      Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
      Pregnant women need to be tested for group B streptococcus

      6

      Herpes

      Herpes virus

      can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, at birth due to the baby’s contact with amniotic fluid or after birth due to infection from the fluid from the blisters (mothers with herpes when kissing babies can transmit the disease to the baby).

      Children infected with herpes virus can manifest from mild (blisters on lips, genitals, …) to severe when the virus penetrates deep inside such as the brain with the expression that the child is sleepy all day or the eyes. , liver, spleen. The baby may suck poorly, or be irritable, difficult
      breathing, convulsions.

      Advice:

      • Cesarean section can be used to prevent the baby from coming into contact with the mother’s genital herpes.
      • When the mother has a cold sore, absolutely do not kiss the child or let the fluid from the blister stick to the furniture, hands and feet of the child’s body.
      Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
      When the mother has a wide mouth, she should not kiss the child

      7

      Wart disease

      The disease can be passed from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, so a cesarean section does not protect the baby from infection from the mother. Children can

      have warts

      in the larynx, trachea, lungs, and genitals, which may resolve spontaneously or recur.

      Advice:

      During pregnancy, it is best to treat the disease completely (burn) to prevent the disease from spreading quickly (for pregnant women, the disease spreads quickly due to high estrogen levels) that can be transmitted to the fetus.

      Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
      Warts – warts

      8

      Vaginal fungus

      Mother has

      genital fungus

      At birth, the disease can be transmitted to the baby, showing that the baby has oral thrush, white spots on the tongue, genital fungus, making the baby itchy and uncomfortable.

      Advice

      : To prevent the mother can put antifungal medicine (vaginal tablets). It is best to go to specialized medical facilities for proper treatment.

      Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
      Vaginal fungus

      9

      Syphilis

      Pregnant women suffering from

      syphilis

      If left untreated, spirochetes of syphilis are transmitted from mother to child through the placenta, causing stillbirth, miscarriage, premature birth and malformations in newborns such as: Babies born with smaller bones than other babies, skin wrinkly, pale yellow like an old man, big belly, circulatory system, enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, rapid weight loss, possibly sudden death.

      Syphilis

      Mother-to-child transmission occurs between the 4th and 5th months of pregnancy because the placenta allows the mother’s blood to easily exchange with the fetal blood, which creates an opportunity for spirochetes. can enter the fetus through the umbilical blood vessels and transmit the disease.

      Advice:

      • For mothers who are suspected of being infected with syphilis through sexual intercourse during pregnancy, to prevent syphilis from being transmitted from mother to child, it is also necessary to carry out the necessary tests for timely detection and prevention. take appropriate action;

      • If the disease is detected early, the patient needs to follow the doctor’s treatment regimen so that the treatment process for the child can progress well, avoiding unwanted consequences later.
      Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
      Children with congenital syphilis

      ten

      Chlamydia disease

      Disease caused by

      Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria

      cause. 60-70% of women have no specific symptoms but may have difficulty urinating, pelvic pain, easy bleeding in the vagina. Gonorrhea and chlamydia often occur at the same time.

      Because the symptoms are mild, this disease can cause more complications than gonorrhea because patients are often subjective, do not properly assess the level of danger or treat late. Chlamydia is also commonly transmitted from mother to baby during childbirth, causing neonatal eye inflammation, pneumonia, and ear infections. Neonatal ophthalmia usually occurs about 2 weeks after birth but fortunately rarely leads to blindness. However, if chlamydia is left untreated, it can become chronic, relapsing, and scaring the cornea.

      Advice:

      • The surest way to avoid sexually transmitted Chlamydia is to avoid sex, or have long-term, monogamous sex with someone who has been screened and is definitely not infected.
      • Male condoms, when used regularly and correctly can reduce the risk of Chlamydia transmission.
      Top 10 Dangerous diseases that are transmitted from mother to child you should know | TopList
      Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria
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