Fabio de Sa, a zoologist at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, says polygamous mating is the most common mating system between animals and is commonly found in fish with bones, reptiles, mammals, birds and even some invertebrates.
De Sa is the first author of a new article to appear in the Science Advances magazine on Wednesday, which now shows polygamy is present in all four-legged animals. Polygyny or polygynous is a common condition in the animal kingdom in which one male mate with many females while each female mates with only one male.
Animal mating systems persistently exist between the polygamous form, which is related to an earlier stage in evolution and the monogamous form – which forms when the offspring of a species claim. Ask the careful care of both parents.
Polygamy in animals is a tendency that occurs when males are forced to compete for females as well as resources such as territory, food and water.
De Sa and his colleagues decided to investigate whether Thoropa taophora – a species of frog found in Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest capable of living “polygamy”.
This forest frog likes to live in a rocky environment and their body is reddish brown, allowing them to easily adapt and adapt to their surroundings, males often have spikes on their fingers. As a weapon during combat. The team recorded these frogs at cliffs on the edge of the rainforest, where the frog was exposed to relatively bright sunlight and had little freshwater and places to give birth. real. This is considered a poor environment for resources and food and can affect their mating pattern.
The team found that in this environment, the males have a habit of patrolling their breeding habitats and emitting aggressive calls to scare away intruders. eggs and tadpoles to protect them. When the other males approach the area and ignore the warnings, they will attack each other and use their toes to grapple and weaponize each other.
The team investigated seven males in the breeding season and all showed the same pattern – one male would mate with two females (one dominant, one secondary). The special thing is that they will not change mates during the breeding season. Experts have noted that males exhibit protective behaviors as well as their eggs and tadpoles during that time. They would regularly patrol their territory, make aggressive calls to scare away intruders, and stay close to eggs and tadpoles to protect them.
The team found that males mating with two females, in which they are more likely to “fall in love” with one, and the other will be seen as a backup to “swap. meal “. The dominant female will try to mate by responding to the male’s flirting calls with her own cry. At the same time, they will approach the male and actively adjust their readiness to mate and the male will pounce on the female from behind.
While this is happening, the second female will stand aside in a motionless position. The female also sometimes activates mating by eating some of the male’s eggs.
The male usually spends most of his time chasing the female and discouraging them from eating the eggs, but sometimes if it is the favored female this will still happen and they mate to spawns new eggs to make up for lost eggs.
Through the analysis of the genetic material, the observers found that the dominant females usually contribute between 56% and 97% of the tadpoles. De Sa argues that limiting each male frog to two females may be due to the choice of females. The female frog tries to choose the best male and spawning site. They will not change once the match is found. Polygamy is beneficial for both sexes. The male frog needs to prevent other males from using the spawning sites they struggled to capture. In addition, having multiple sex partners also helps them diversify their genetic capital.
The team confirmed what they saw in the video by studying genetic material and found that the tadpoles are siblings with the number of tadpoles coming mainly from the offspring. the preferred one.