Dirk Schulze-Makuch led by working at Washington State University, new research was made to describe in detail the properties of planets that are highly life-sustaining – planets “super-suited” for life; they could be older, bigger, warmer or wetter planets than Earth. Life could be even more prosperous, according to experts, on planets orbiting “slow-living” stars, which have a longer maximum lifespan than the Sun.
All 24 highly habitable planets are located more than 100 light-years from Earth, but Professor Schulze-Makuch states that new research could support future astronomical observations, but the mission will be NASA’s James Web Space Telescope, the LUVIOR observatory or the ESA European Space Agency’s PLATO telescope.
The James Web Space Telescope, one of the most modern instruments ever built by humans.
“With these telescope systems coming into service, we will have more information, so target selection is very important.“, Professor Schulze-Makuch said. “We need to focus on certain planets that have the most promising complex life-support conditions. However, you should still be careful not to go into the second cycle of Earth, because there may be other planets that support life better than our own.“.
Schulze-Makuch, a geobiologist – studying the interactions between the Earth and the biosphere – with experience in determining the planet’s life-aiding abilities, collaborated with astronomer Rene Heller from Max Planck Institute to find planets suitable for life. They analyzed data from 4,500 exoplanets (exoplanets) to find the brightest candidates. The ability to support life does not accompany the claim that the planet in question is inhabited, but only a condition that allows life to exist.
The Sun is a relatively short-lived star, less than 10 billion years old; Currently, scientists estimate that the Sun is 4.6 billion years old. Based on what we know, life is complex on Earth taking about 4 billion years to form. Many stars similar to the Sun (called G stars – G stars) will burn out of fuel before complex life can form on planets flying in the system.
In addition to observing G star systems, the researchers also looked at K dwarfs, whose temperatures are not as high as the Sun, are smaller and less bright, but that K stars have maximum lifespans. from 20 to 70 billion years. It is more likely that planets orbiting star K will have more time to synthesize life. However, in order to support life, a planet must not be too old to still have an abundant geothermal energy and a strong geomagnetic field. Researchers think that the time that allows life to flourish is when the planet is between 5 and 8 billion years old.
Professor Dirk Schulze-Makuch.
Planetary size and mass are also important factors. A planet 10% larger than Earth would have more life support area. Planets 1.5 times the mass of Earth will sustain their core radiant temperatures longer, and the planet’s own gravity will be stronger to maintain the atmosphere for a long time.
Water is the core ingredient, the more water the planet has, the higher the survival rate, while water is also the component that creates moisture and rain clouds. A planet with a surface temperature about 5 degrees Celsius higher than Earth and adding many percent more moisture would support life better than Earth. One can compare life in the rainforest to cooler, drier regions to see the effects of humidity and air temperature.
Out of the 24 most viable planets, no candidate meets all of the above criteria, but there is one planet with four major factors: This is a livable planet, or more specifically suitable for life, than the Earth.
“Sometimes it is difficult to convey the idea of ’super fit’ planets to life, because we think humanity is already living on the most suitable planet.”, Says Professor Schulze-Makuch. “We have complex and varied life forms, many of which thrive in extremely harsh environments. It is good to have adaptive life, but that doesn’t mean we are in the best life support conditions.“.
According to Science Daily