We know that one of the reasons for the one-hole ozone layer is that the refrigerant found in refrigerators and old air conditioners – is CFC and many other substances, collectively known as ODS (ozone depleting substance). ; We could have avoided this if we used it the refrigerator of Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard old design. But the new study points to one more harmful effect of ODS: making the Arctic warmer, and accelerating the melting rate of ice during 1955-2005.
The new study, which is published in Nature, is based on a series of advanced climate models, set up in an effort to understand the harmful effects of ODS in melting Arctic ice. There are risks in the risks, because we detect early and stop the use of ODS in industry, ozone layer and Earth’s climate is somewhat peaceful as it is now. Late last year, NASA declared that the ozone hole was still there, but has reached the smallest level since its discovery – in 1982 so far.
The researchers chose the 1955 milestone because it was the time when ODS such as chlorofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbon appeared simultaneously in the refrigeration industry.
They ran two parallel simulations: one that showed real-world contexts, when ODS affected the Earth during the 50 years that followed the 1955 milestone; one shows the harmful effects when the amount of ODS in the air is similar to that of ODS in 1955.
The results are as follows: in the first context, the annual average global temperature increases by 0.59 degrees Celsius; In the second context, the temperature only increased by 0.39 degrees Celsius. That shows that in the period of 1955-2008, ODS was the culprit ⅓ of global warming effect.
Global warming has affected the cold regions like the Arctic, and this is also the most beneficial region when governments decided to cut ODS by the end of 2004. In the Arctic, temperatures increase by about 1, 59 degrees C for a period of 50 years of ODS emissions; when keeping ODS at 1955, the Arctic temperature rises by only 0.8 degrees.
But ODS does not only affect the temperature of the Earth. Research shows that half of the Arctic ice melting during September – the most melting time – is due to the effects of ODS.
Fortunately, we soon considered stopping ODS applications in the industry. On September 21, 2007, an estimated 200 countries agreed to completely cut ODS by the end of 2020; Developing countries are allowed to use ODS until 2030.
The policy is clearly working, scientists think that most likely, most of the ozone layer will recover within this century.