It has been 2 million years since the first humans appeared. In this 2 million-year-old prehistoric civilization, there were many human species, such as the Neanderthals and Homo erectus … These species co-existed with the ancestors of modern humans on Earth but eventually they were all has disappeared and only our ancestors remain – Homo sapiens survived. So who are our cousins, what are they like?
Coron (Homo habilis)
Homo habilis is translated into Vietnamese as a cunning man or an ancient man, a species of the genus Homo, this is the first species of the genus Homo, branching from the southern ape at the end of the Pleistocene or early Pleistocene, about 2, 5 million to 2 million years ago.
The magicians have smaller molars and bigger brains than the southern apes, and they know how to use stone (and possibly animal bones) to make tools. Compared to modern people, Homo habilis has short stature, too long arms, small body, about 1m30 high, weighs 30-50 kg, sparse hair, distinguishes men and women clearly. Food is fruits, seeds, small animals …
Fossils indicate that they lived from 1.95 million to 1.78 million years ago. The emergence of Homo rudolfensis suggests that at this stage, the human ancestral family was more complex than originally known.
On August 8, 2012, an archaeological team led by Meave Leakey announced the discovery of a face and two jaw bones belonging to H. rudolfensis. It is evidence that a new breed of genus Homo lived at the same time with Homo erectus and Homo habilis. Homo rudolfensis has a bigger brain and a flatter face than Homo habilis.
Upright person (Homo erectus)
Homo erectus, also translated into Vietnamese as a human, is an extinct human species that lived during most of the Pleistocene period, from 1.8 million to 1 million years ago in Africa, Asia and Asia. Au.
They are some group of ancient people likely to have developed a larger brain and created more advanced stone tools, along with other differences, sufficient for anthropologists to classify it as a new species – Homo erectus.
Homo erectus was the first ancestor of humankind with an upright gait. This may be possible through the evolution of the knee and the position of the ribs …
Homo erectus georgicus is a human race with skull and jaw fossils found in Dmanisi, Georgia. First proposed as a separate species, Homo Georgicus is classified as H.Erectus. The fossil site was discovered in 1991 by Georgian scientist David Lordkipanidze.
Homo georgicus lived from 1.8 to 1.6 million years ago and may be a subspecies of Homo erectus, or an intermediary between the dart and the upright.
Homo ergaster is an extinct species of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa at the beginning of the Pleistocene, according to various sources from about 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago.
They are about 1.9 meters high. There is still disagreement about subjects such as taxonomy, ancestors and descendants of H. ergaster, but it is generally accepted that this species is a direct ancestor of later humans, such as Homo heidelbergensis, Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and possibly Asian Homo erectus.
Homo ergaster uses more diverse and complex stone tools than its predecessor Homo habilis. H. ergaster developed two-sided stone axes. In addition, animal bones were burned and traces of the camp indicated that they would also use fire.
Homo ergaster is probably the first human species to use “what we can call human speech”, although its symbolic awareness is probably very limited when compared to language. of modern people.
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species in the genus Homo, which may be the ancestor of the same branch of Homo neanderthalensis in Europe and Homo sapiens. The most evident evidence found of this species dates from around 400,000 to 500,000 years ago.
At first this was just a name given to a jawbone fossil, but today scientists have recognized it as a separate species in Europe, which possesses more advanced knives than other humans. At the same time, this tool helps them hunt larger animals like horses.
Homo antecessor is a human race identified from fossils from Spain and the United Kingdom dating from 800,000 to 1.2 million years ago, discovered by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luis Arsuaga and JM Bermudez de Castro . H. antecessor is one of the earliest known human strains in Europe.
Homo cepranensis is the proposed name for a species of hominid known only by a crest discovered in 1994 unearthed in Italy, estimated to have lived about 800,000 years ago.
Homo gautengensis is an ancient human race that lived about 600,000 to 2 million years. This is a omnivorous species with a body only a meter high and weighs about 50 kg. They can communicate with simple syllables.
This species was proposed by anthropologist Darren Curnoe in 2010 to include fossils of Hominin South Africa.
Homo naledi is an extinct species of the Human race, discovered in the Dinaledi cave of the Rising Star cave system. The scientists said the fossil bones were found in a cave at the Cradle of Man, the Republic of South Africa in 2013, and belonged to the new unidentified species of the genus Man.
Currently more than 1,550 bone fossils have been found, including the skull, jaws, teeth that belong to both adult, young and elderly members of this species.
This species appears in Africa, described through skull fossils in Kabwe. Other comparisons of the morphological form were found at the same time, or earlier, in South Africa, East Africa and North Africa. These fossils date between 300,000 and 125,000 years.
Currently, most experts believe that Homo rhodesiensis is Hominin extinct of the genus Homo, and some scholars argue that this is an intermediary between ancient Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens rhodesiensis.
Homo neanderthalensis, also known as Neanderthals, is often used as a general term for the representative population in the middle period of human evolutionary history.
This species is named for the fossil found in the Neandertal Valley in Germany. Neanderthals are close relatives of the ancestors of modern Europe. From 120,000 years ago, they ruled Europe, West Asia and North Africa, but these ancient people disappeared 24,000 years ago.
Homo floresiensis may be a species, now extinct, in the genus Homo. The site was discovered in 2004 on the island of Flores in Indonesia from 100,000 to 12,000 years ago.
Due to its small size, this species has another nickname is Habib, what makes scientists curious about Floris is their shape and age.
This is a human species dating to very close to today but they have many different characteristics compared to contemporary people, in other words, the Flores have a common ancestor with contemporary humans, but are separated. out of the pedigree of contemporary humans and follow a unique evolutionary path.
Denisova hominin is the name given to the remains of an individual of the genus He may be a previously unknown species based on an analysis of its mitochondrial DNA.
An archaeologist who studied the Altai Mountains in Siberia in 2008, found a small piece of a finger bone in the Denisova cave. The artifacts excavated at the same level in this cave, including a bracelet, date back about 40,000 years ago.