Just 3 weeks after China announced the strange pneumonia epidemic caused by a new virus in Wuhan City, the number of patients increased to more than 600 with 18 deaths. Concerns continued to grow as Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, the United States, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam and Singapore reported cases of positive for the virus, respectively.
Before the risk of Wuhan virus can spread during the Lunar New Year, let’s equip the necessary knowledge to prevent the disease:
1. The journey of two Chinese patients in Vietnam
Today, Cho Ray Hospital officially 2 cases of corona virus infection causing the first mysterious lung disease in Vietnam. They are Chinese father and son Li Ding (66 years old) and Li Zichao (28 years old). In particular, Mr. Li Ding is from Wuchang, in the center of Wuhan, China.
He and his wife arrived in Vietnam on January 13, by a flight from Wuhan to Hanoi. They stayed in a hotel in Hanoi until January 16, then continued to fly to Nha Trang on January 17 to meet with their son Li Zichao who had been in Vietnam for 4 months.
The whole Chinese family stayed here until January 19, then traveled by train to Ho Chi Minh City. Ho Chi Minh. Also on January 20, Li Ding and Li Zichao took a taxi to Long An.
During his stay in Vietnam, Mr. Li Ding had had a fever since January 17 and bought medicine himself but it did not subside. Three days later, son Li Zichao also had a fever. The father and son went to Binh Chanh Hospital to visit and be advised to enter Cho Ray Hospital on January 22. The hospital took a sample and sent it to the Pasteur Institute. After 6 hours, the results confirmed that both Chinese father and son were infected with coronavirus.
Associate Professor, Dr. Nguyen Truong Son, Deputy Minister of Health, said that provinces and border gates on patients’ journeys need to be informed about this case.
2. Ministry of Health recommendations for disease prevention
In order to proactively prevent acute pneumonia caused by Wuhan virus strains, the Ministry of Health recommends that people and communities perform well the following measures:
– Limit direct contact with people with acute respiratory infections; When necessary contact with sick people must wear a proper medical mask and keep a distance when exposed.
– Keep your body warm, keep personal hygiene, wash your hands often with soap, mouthwash with antiseptic water to prevent pneumonia.
– Need to cover the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, preferably with a cloth or handkerchief to reduce the spread of respiratory secretions.
– Limit close contact with animal or wildlife farms.
– Those who return from Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China or have close contact with a person with pneumonia in Wuhan City within 14 days if signs of fever, cough, difficulty breathing, need to immediately the nearest health facility for timely consultation, examination and treatment.
3. The transmission route of the virus
The new corona virus is thought to have first infected humans from animals, most likely snakes and bats. Therefore, a first precaution is to avoid unnecessary contact with animals, thoroughly cooking meat and egg products.
In addition, the corona virus has been identified as being spread from person to person. With coronaviruses often attacking the airways, here are some of the scenarios 2019-nCoV can spread:
– Through air breathing, when patients cough, sneeze
– Through personal contact, such as shaking hands
– Through an intermediary, when both people touch
– Through stool (rare)
Therefore, the next preventive measure is to limit contact with people who have flu-like symptoms. If you feel unwell, you should stay home and avoid going out in public. And don’t visit people with the flu unless absolutely necessary.
If a member of your family has the flu, you should isolate them from other family members if possible.
4. Virus will spread within 4 meters from the sneeze of the ill person
When a person sneezes, they spread into the environment a cloud called “aerosol“This cloud carries everything terrible, from body fluids, gas molecules to pathogens like viruses and bacteria. Aerosols can spread within a radius of 4 meters from a person’s sneeze.
To avoid spreading the virus to others, people with the flu should sneeze and cough in exactly the following steps:
– Turn your back on others
– Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or sleeve, elbow
– Use disposable paper towels instead of handkerchiefs (may store viruses)
– Throw used tissues in the nearest trash, instead of clothes or bags
– Wash your hands, or use alcohol-based hand sanitizer as soon as possible afterward.
5. Medical masks are not effective in preventing airborne viruses
As recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), patients with corona virus infection should wear a mask to protect those around them, or if the patient cannot wear a mask, If in the same room they should wear a mask.
That means wearing a mask works better for others than it is for yourself.
Dr. David Carrington from St George’s University, London, told BBC News: “Wearing a regular medical mask may not effectively protect people from airborne viruses or bacteria“, that’s the way”most viruses“was transmitted. The reason is because the medical mask is too loose, has no air filter and still shows its eyes.
Medical masks help people who have been infected with the virus reduce the spread of droplets containing germs into the air from their coughs or sneezes, thus helping prevent illness for those around them.
Wearing a medical mask does not work for this way of spreading viruses through aerosols.
6. But medical masks can prevent the virus from spreading through contact
A 2016 study found that people touch their faces an average of 23 times an hour. And this is a pathway for the spread of disease-causing viruses that masks can be prevented.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends caregivers or people living in the same home with the sick person to wear disposable masks, disposable gloves and gowns, when in contact with body fluids of the patient.
7. Do people need to wear an N95 mask?
It is not difficult to explain the current N95 mask fever when the disease of corona virus in Wuhan China has spread to many countries in the region. In Singapore, the Guardian drugstore system says mask sales have quadrupled in the past two weeks. Many drugstores ran out of N95 masks to sell.
CDC recommends health-care workers in direct contact with patients infected with corona virus should wear N95 mask. It can filter 95% of particles with a diameter of 0.3 microns. (A micron is 1 / 1,000 of a millimeter). At this time, the size of coronavirus particles is still unknown. But SARS, the virus is similar to it with a diameter of 0.1 micron .
Whether or not to wear an N95 mask to prevent the flu is still controversial.
National Center for Infectious Diseases Singapore, Leo Yee Sin, told The Straits Times newspaper that N95 masks are not recommended for the public. They are mainly used by medical personnel.
N95 respirator is designed to make breathing difficult for people when worn correctly. “If you find the N95 respirator easy and comfortable, you’re wearing it wrong and it doesn’t work … you think you are protected but in fact not“, Professor Leo Yee Sin said.
A study published in Singapore Medical Directory also reported the use of an N95 respirator may be counterproductive. In the past, when Canadian health workers wore N95 masks to take care of SARS patients, they often had difficulty breathing, headaches and mental impairment due to lack of oxygen.
The study quoted Dr. Ling Moi Lin, director of infection control at Singapore General Hospital, saying that wearing a medical mask is enough. A properly fitted medical mask has a better preventative effect than an incorrectly worn N95 respirator.
In Taiwan, which has confirmed cases of patients infected with corona virus, deputy director of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) of this country, Chuang Jen-hsiang said wearing a medical mask could reduce the risk of disease. up to 80% and people do not need to wear an N95 mask.
8. How to wear a medical mask properly?
When you notice, you will see that the medical mask has 2 quite similar faces, usually, you have to wear a dark-colored waterproof face facing outwards, with folds facing down, nose splint on the bridge of the nose.
The next wear steps are as follows:
Step 1: With both hands, pull the mask flat evenly to the sides
Step 2: One hand holds the mask tightly, the other wears a mask strap over the ear and continues to the other side
Step 3: Fix the nose splint so that it fits snugly against the bridge of the nose.
Step 4: Pull the tail of the mask firmly over the chin
Step 5: Check the sides of the mask with your hands with your hands. If tight, you will breathe slightly difficult and if wearing glasses, steam will not blur the glasses.
9. Washing your hands often with soap is the most effective way to prevent corona virus
As mentioned, corona virus can spread through common contact surfaces between patients and healthy people, and wearing a mask does not effectively protect itself from the airborne infection.
Therefore, hand washing will be the most effective proactive measure to prevent corona virus. Dr. Huang Ching-tai, head of the Department of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine at Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taipei, said regularly washing hands with soap is the key to protecting himself from the risk of infection.
Everyone should wash their hands thoroughly with soap. They should not touch their face, especially their eyes, nose or mouth, before washing their hands, added Dr. Huang. To wash your hands, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that we do the following:
Step 1: Wet your hands with clean water.
Step 2: Use soap and rub all the indentations of the hand for 20-30 seconds (equal to the time of singing “Happy Birthday” twice).
Step 3: Wash your hands with clean water.
Step 4: Dry your hands with a clean paper towel or let air dry
10. House cleaning
CDC recommends that anyone who comes into contact with an infected patient needs to clean all surfaces that the patient has touched such as counters, countertops, doorknobs, bathroom fixtures, toilets. birth, phone, keyboard, tablet and bedside table.
Detergents containing disinfectants with the “EPA approved“can kill viruses, according to the CDC. Or you can also make yourself a homemade version, using a tablespoon of bleach with a liter of water.