But especially, in the world there still exists the concept called “paradox” – are the dilemma situations, requiring more thinking than that. And the results are even better.
Here are some classic paradoxes, and try to see if you understand them.
1. The paradox “black crow”
Also known as the “Hempel Paradox”, named after the person who proved it to be the philosopher Carl Hempel.
Hempel’s idea is that when the coincidence events occur too many times, the reliability of the theory will become increased. For example, he gave a proposition: “All crows in the world are black.”
Ignore the fact that there are even white crows, but because their numbers are rare, you can check millions of crows still see them as black, and then will believe that the above statement is correct. Then when looking at an apple, because it is not black, it is not a crow, and thus the “black raven” is also strengthened.
2. Epimenides paradox
On Crete on ancient Greece, there was a man named Epimenides of Knossos. He made the following statement: “Every Crete islander lies.”
Just a very simple sentence, but it itself exists a paradox. If that statement is true, Epimenides itself cannot tell the truth because it is also an islander. On the other hand, in case every islander only tells the truth, that is, Epimenides lied, but because he was an islander, he could not lie. So in short, are you telling the truth or lying? The paradox lies in that.
3. Abilene paradox: When we are forced to do what we do not want
This is a social paradox, made by Professor Jerry B. Harvey, with the example of a family of 2 couples and their parents going on a picnic.
The father-in-law proposed a trip to Abilene – a town about 80 kilometers from their residence. The wife (his daughter) was not very interested because she thought it was a hot day, but she did not say it but just expressed her homosexuality. Even so, in her heart, she thought no one would respond to things at home. And the husband (son-in-law) assumes that his mother-in-law wants to go. And so they decided to go.
As expected by his wife, the trip was a disaster. The distance was too long, the weather was too hot, the food in the cafe stopped was bad, so they decided to return after going for a few hours.
On the way back, the wife remarked quite … satirically, that the idea of Abilene did not seem very good. The husband replied, he only agreed because he thought his mother-in-law wanted to go, while she had not commented anything. As for his father-in-law, he said he only gave hints because people looked bored.
So in short, none of this family really wants to go, so why did they decide to go? It is a true paradox that exists according to Harvey’s explanation. This paradox can cause us to do things that are against our will.
4. Grandfather paradox
Fans on the topic of “time travel” will be very familiar with this paradox. It was launched in 1944 by René Barjavel, a fiction author. The idea here is that a man (temporarily called A) returns to the past and accidentally kills his own grandfather.
Because of A’s death, A’s grandfather would not be able to marry and give birth to A’s father, and from that point A could not be born. But if A is not born, who will return to the past to cause tragedy? Meaning that Grandpa A will not die, and the story goes on and on in an endless loop.
It is one of the paradoxes associated with time travel that scientists cannot explain. So later, the theory of parallel universes (the basis of time travel in the Marvel movie universe) was considered more reasonable, though still only a theory.
5. The paradox of twins
This is one of the paradoxes given by the genius Albert Einstein to explain his theory of relativity. Accordingly, time is not a constant quantity, but depends on the perspective and the movement of the observer.
The basis of the paradox is the story of a twins. 1 person is an astronaut, traveling through galaxies at a very fast speed. The other one is on Earth, for 20 years.
As a result, people who stay on Earth age faster because of time dilation. The twin brother in the universe when returning will be much younger because of moving at a fast pace, making time to follow faster. This means that time is only a relative quantity.
6. The ship of Theseus
In Greek myth there is anecdote about Theseus, with a trip from Crete to Athens on a boat with 30 oars and a few young men. The boat has been handed down for generations and is still in good condition, because every time it is broken or broken, it is repaired and replaced parts very quickly.
But this is what makes philosophers question, if every part of the ship is replaced, is it truly original? And if all the broken parts of the original ship were reassembled, what really were Theseus’s ship: the ship was repaired, or the ship reassembled from the original fragments?
Reference: BS, VT.co